The Municipality of Solano being the premier town of the Province of Nueva Vizcaya lies geographically at 16’ 31’ 10.709’-Latitude and 121’ 10’ 40.865’-Longitude. Being in the interior, it is bounded by different Municipalities; on the North-East by the Municipality of Bagabag, North by the Municipality of Villaverde, on the South-East by the Municipality of Quezon, on the South by the Municipality of Bayombong and on the West by the Municipality of Ambaguio.

Its main access is a national highway that traverses in a general north-south direction from the Municipality of Bayombong thru the Municipality of Bagabag.  To the east lies a secondary National Highway that links the Municipality of Quezon and a Provincial Road that links Municipality of Solano to the Municipality of Villaverde thru the Municipality of Bagabag.

The municipality is in the inner north central portion of the Province of Nueva Vizcaya approximately 275 kilometers north of Metro Manila with an average travel time of 6-7 hours by land and 3 kilometers away from the Municipality of Bayombong, the provincial capital and the seat of provincial and national offices. Solano is the second smallest municipality with an area of 10,298.5603 hectares and is politically subdivided into 22 barangays.

  • Territorial Jurisdiction

The municipality is divided into twenty-two (22) barangays which six (6) are classified urban barangays and the rest are rural barangays.  The urban barangays are Osmeña, Poblacion North, Poblacion South, Quezon, Quirino and Roxas.  The rural barangays are Aggub, Bangaan Bangar, Bascaran, Curifang, Dadap, Lactawan, San Juan, San Luis, Tucal, Uddiawan, Wacal, Bagahabag, Communal, Concepcion and Pilar D. Galima.

The six (6) urban barangays having a total land area of 1,168.5422 hectares comprises 11.35 percent of the total municipal land area.  The sixteen (16) rural barangays with a total land area of 9,130.0181 hectares accounts for 88.65 percent of the total land area of Solano.

  • Topographic and Physiographic Features
    • Topography

In general, the natural topography in the municipality favors land development efforts.  The flat areas having slope of below 18% which characterized as level to nearly level lands comprises about 7,591.7082 hectares representing 73.72% of the entire municipality. These areas are suitable for settlements and agricultural production.

Areas with 18-30% described as rolling to hilly and only cover about 1,267.2660 hectares representing only 12.31%.  These are concentrated on the southeast portion of the municipality.

  • Slope

               Slope categories in the 30-50% range, described as steep hills to mountainous covers 1,002.1782 hectares representing 9.73% of the entire municipality.  These areas are found on the northeast portion of the municipality and on the foot slopes of very steep hills and mountainous portion of the municipality.  Areas with very steeply mountainous are found on the western part of the municipality which covers 437.4078 hectares representing 4.25% percent of the entire municipality. 

LAND SLOPE CATEGORY IN THE MUNICIPALITY

CODE CATEGORY DESCRIPTION AREA (Has) PERCENT
M Below 18 Level to nearly level 7,591.7082 73.72
P 18 –  30 Rolling to hilly 1,267.2660 12.31
Q 30 –  50 Steep hill to mountainous 1,002.1782 9.73
R Above 50 Very steeply mountainous 437.4078 4.25
TOTAL     10,298.5603 100.00
  • Elevation

               The elevation of the municipality is dominated by areas below 500 meters above mean sea level considered warm lowland and having an area of 8,252.5272 hectares which represents 80.13% of the total land area of the municipality.  About 1000 meters above mean sea level is predominantly characterized by cool upland representing 1,691.8329 hectares or 16.43% and above 1,000 meters above sea level is characterized as cool highland representing 354.1999 hectares or 3.44% total land area.

LAND ELEVATION CATEGORY IN THE MUNICIPALITY

Code ELEVATION
(masl)
DESCRIPTION AREA
(Ha)
PERCENT
E1 Below 500 Warm Lowland 8,252.5274 80.13
E2 500 – 1,000 Warm to Cool Upland 1,691.8329 16.43
E3 Above 1,000 Cool Highland 354.1999 3.44
TOTAL     10,298.5603 100.00
  • Soil Classification and Uses

The DENR-MGB identified Ten (10) soil classifications that are found within the municipality and these are described as follows;

  1. Annam Clay Loam – which is found on the south eastern portion of the municipality comprises about 331.4921 hectares or 3.25% of the total land area of the municipality.
  2. Bago Sandy Clay Loam – which is found on the eastern section of the municipality comprises about 331.9573 hectares or 3.22% of the total land area of the municipality
  3. Bantog Clay Loam – which comprises around 1,028.9989 hectares of land representing 9.99% of the total land area. The relief is generally level and has poor drainage.
  4. Faraon day/River Wash – which 421.0122 hectares of the land or 4.09% of the total land area.
  5. Guimbalaon Clay Loam – which is found in the north-eastern hilly sections of the municipality and comprises about 954.5915 hectares or representing 9.26% of its total area.
  6. Guimbalaon Gravelly Clay Loam – which comprises around 2,179.0144 hectares or an equivalent of 21.16% of the total land area of the municipality. It is usually found on the western section of the municipality.  A distinguishing characteristic of this type is the presence of rock outcrops.
  7. Maligaya Clay Loam – which is predominantly found in the municipality and occupies the lowland portion of the municipality. This comprises around 3,837.8082 hectares of land representing 37.26% of the total land area.  This type of soil can be utilized for crop cultivation and suited for lowland paddy rice.
  8. Quingua Clay Loam– which is usually found on the north section of the municipality which comprises 221.7643 hectares or an equivalent of 2.15% of the total land area.
  9. Quingua Silt Loam – this is usually found on the east and south-east portion of the municipality along Magat River banks on level to slightly undulating with moderate water retention and comprises 709.8149 hectares or an equivalent of 6.89%.
  10. San Manuel Sandy Loam – which is usually found along the Magat River and subjected to floods during the rainy season. It comprises around 282.1066 hectares or an equivalent of 2.73% of the total area of the municipality.
  • Land Classification

The municipal land area is classified into Alienable and Disposable Land (A&D) and Forestland.

  • Alienable and Disposable (A&D) and Forestland

The municipal land area is classified into Alienable and Disposable Land (A&D) and Forestland. Based on data provided by the DENR-PENRO Nueva Vizcaya GIS Mapping Team, the land area of the municipality of Solano is 10,298.5603 hectares. This land area includes the land areas of the twenty-two (22) disputed barangays.

The alienable and disposable lands are classified as those with slopes of 18% and below, which are generally suitable for agriculture or settlements use.  From the DENR-PENRO Land Classification Map, 7,153.22304 hectares or 69.46% of the total land area of Solano is Alienable and Disposable Land.  On the other hand, Forestlands are those with more than 18% slope.  Data provided by the DENR-PENRO Nueva Vizcaya GIS mapping team, 30.54% or 3,145.3299 hectares is Forestlands.

The total alienable & disposable (A&D) and forestland based on slope are 8,252.5274 hectares and 2,046.0329 hectares respectively. Area computed based on its land elevation and slope.

LAND CLASSIFICATION IN THE MUNICIPALITY

LAND CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SLOPE DECLARED BY DENR
AREA (ha) Percent AREA (Has) 2012 Percent Area (Has) 2015 Percent
Alienable & Disposable (A&D) Land 8,252.5274 80.13% 8,411.619 81.70 7,153.22304 69.46%
Forest Land 2,046.0329 19.87% 1,884.658 18.34 3,145.3299 30.54%
TOTAL 10,298.5603 100.00 10,296.277 100.00 10,298.5603 100.00

 

  • Sub-watersheds

There are three (3) major sub watersheds identified in the municipality. These watersheds are important in the regulation of quantity and quality water not only for the municipality but for the region as well.

The Bintawan Sub-Watershed (SW1) is the smallest having an area of approximately 2,277.9010 hectares or 22.12% of the total area of the municipality. This sub-watershed cover barangays Communal, San Juan and Uddiawan. This sub-watershed comprises the Ablang River, Alog Creek, Bintawan River, Caupligan Creek, Gonggongob Creek, Ladao Creek, Ladao River, Maratungawan Creek, and Paid Creek.

The Lanog Sub-Watershed (SW2) is the largest with an approximate area of 4,928.5872 hectares or 47.86% of the total land area of the municipality of Solano. This sub-watershed cover barangays Aggub, Bangaan, Bascaran, Communal, Concepcion, Lactawan, Osmeña, P.D. Galima, Quezon, San Juan, San Luis, Tucal, Uddiawan, and Wacal. This sub-watershed comprises Alfredo Creek, Andarayan Creek, Bangaan Creek, Barasibit Creek, Caupligan Creek, Kimmatigid Creek, Lanog River, Maratungawan Creek, Nanguyatan Creek, and Wacal Creek.

The Magat Sub-watershed (SW3) is the second largest with an approximate area of 3,092.0721 hectares or 30.02% of the land area covering barangays Aggub, Bagahabag, Bangar, Bascaran, Concepcion, Curifang, Dadap, Osmeña, Poblacion North, Poblacion South, Quezon, Quirino, Roxas, and San Luis. This sub-watershed comprises the Magat River.

  • GEOLOGIC FOUNDATION

The geologic map of Solano is underlain with sedimentary rock formations the dominant being recent depositions of alluvium with an area of 6,292.30 hectares. This covers much of the municipality except in Barangay Communal area that is underlain with sedimentary rocks being crystalline limestone with an area of 1,851.14 hectares and unconsolidated conglomerate with an area of 881.19 hectares. Igneous rocks being metarocks underlie at Barangay Concepcion, portion of Aggub and Tucal with an area of 1,244.42 and andesite series with an area of 27.22 has respectively.

  • FAULT-LINE

Considering that the province of Nueva Vizcaya is adjacent to Nueva Ecija where the Digdig Fault is situated, these faults during earthquake events causes ground shaking of low to moderate intensities. There is also a newly discovered Faultline in the Municipality of Quezon which is the Madiangat fault line. This is 5.2 kilometers from the center of the municipality.  If earthquake transpires, the municipality is vulnerable to intensity 8.

  • CLIMATE INFORMATION
    • Current Climate

Climate in the Philippines is based on rainfall distribution that occurs in its respective area.  The municipality of Solano generally belongs to the Type III of climate where it experiences dry season which starts from November to mid-May and wet season which starts from mid-May to October.

The most prominent climatic factors affecting the municipality are the Southwest monsoon and the South Pacific Traders.  Some rainy days experienced during the months of December, January and February are influenced by the northwest monsoon that passes through the province from the northeast and east. 

    • Rainfall

Solano experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall. Rain falls throughout the year in Solano. The most rain falls during the days of August, with an average total accumulation of 12.4 inches. The least rain falls during the days of February, with an average total accumulation of 2.2 inches.

Based on Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) Report on Climate Change in the Philippines, February 2011, the province of Nueva Vizcaya experienced maximum rainfall of 1,149.8 mm which occurred in the months of June, July and August, while minimum rainfall of 180.9mm occurred in December, January and February.

    • Atmospheric Temperature

The hot season lasts from April to June, with an average daily high temperature above 31.67 °C. The hottest day of the year is in the month May, with an average high temperature of 32.78 °C and low temperature of 22.22 °C. The cool season lasts from end of November to mid-February, with an average daily temperature below 28.33°C. The coldest day of the year is in the month January with an average low temperature of 18.89 °C and high temperature of 27.22°C.

    • Relative Humidity

Solano experiences significant seasonal variation in the perceived humidity. The muggier period of the year lasts from February to December, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 64% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is in June, with muggy conditions 99% of the time. The least muggy day of the year is in January, with muggy conditions 52% of the time.

    • Cloudiness

In Solano, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year. The clearer part of the year in Solano begins around November and lasts for 5 months, ending around April. March is the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 54% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 46% of the time. The cloudier part of the year begins around April and ending around November. On August, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 95% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 5% of the time.

 

  • Projected Climate
    • Information About Seasonal Pattern of Change

Mean temperatures in all areas in the Philippines are expected to rise by 0.9 °C to 1.1 °C in 2020 and by 1.8 °C to 2.2 °C in 2050. Likewise, all seasonal mean temperatures will also have increases in these time slices; and these increases during the four seasons are quite consistent in all parts of the country. Largest temperature increase is projected during the summer (MAM) season. This means that for the entire country progressive warming of days in the two time slices but more pronounced during the months of June, July and August. There will also be drier summer months in 2020 with gradual increase by year 2050. Rainfall patterns will be generally increasing in 2020 for the months of September, October and November but with gradual decrease in year 2050.

Under the Medium-range Emission Scenario Climate Model, in the province of Nueva Vizcaya to include the municipality of Solano, temperature will tend to increase between 0.9-1 in 2020 and 1.9-2.1 in 2050.  In 2020, highest temperature is expected during the months of June, July and August at 26.3 degrees Centigrade with abundant rainfall during the months of JJA at 1380.91 mm. While the pattern is generally increasing seasonal patterns, it is projected that the months of DJF in 2020 shall have decreasing rainfall with the rest of the year to experience heavier rainfall from Observed Baseline years 1971-2000.

By 2050, seasonal temperature pattern will be similar but will be hotter by about 1.9-2.1 degrees Centigrade.  With regards to, seasonal rainfall, while the pattern will be the same with highest precipitation be felt during the months of June, July and August, there will be an increase of rainfall from the 2020 projections.

Looking at the Frequency of extreme events, number of days with temperature greater than 35 degrees Centigrade is projected to follow an increasing pattern.  The occurrence of dry days is decreasing in 2020 which implies more positive impacts.  However, despite the decreasing trend for 2020, it was noted that dry days will again rise by 2050.  This indicates that the positive impact can only be anticipated at the early period of climate change (2020).  Negative impacts are likely to happen as the frequency of extreme events generally exhibits increasing trends as seen in 2020 and 2050 data.

CLIMATE PROJECTIONS, NUEVA VIZCAYA (UNDER MEDIUM-RANGE EMISSION SCENARIO)

  • Hazard Information

The municipality is prone to both geological and hydro-meteorological hazards.  However, it is more susceptible to the impacts brought about by hydro-meteorological hazards.  This translate to the municipality being more exposed to hazard impacts brought by climate change such as flooding, typhoons, and excessive rains than those caused by earthquakes, ground shaking and liquefaction.

The DENR-MGB thru its banner program Geohazard Mapping and Assessment Program (GMAP) has conducted assessment within the municipality and was able to identify areas that were susceptible to hazards like flooding and landslide.

  • Flood Assessment

In terms of flood susceptibility, seventeen (17) assessed barangays were found to be susceptible to flooding. These are located in low-lying areas and/or lie near a major drainage system (e. g., Magat River).

The areas that are highly susceptible to flooding are the eastern barangays of the municipality that covers an aggregate area of 769.440 hectares.  These barangays are situated along the Magat River.  Residential situated in low-lying areas and along rivers and creeks experienced moderate to low flooding and covers and aggregate area of 1,376.499 hectares.

  • Typhoon

Solano as the whole in the province of Nueva Vizcaya is susceptible to typhoons, lying in the usual east-to-northwest path taken by these weather disturbances that regularly visit the Philippines.

While most hardly caused material damage to the municipality, they remain a threat.

  • Landslide and Soil Erosion

In terms of landslide susceptibility, nine (9) barangays assessed in Solano include areas that are located on and or near slopes and have the potentials for landslide occurrence. These barangays were also presented with a Landslide Threat Advisory. The Advisory informs the barangays of their susceptibility to landslides and includes the corresponding recommendations particular to the barangay.

Soil erosion occurs along the river banks of the Magat River affecting Barangay Curifang, Bagahabag, Dadap and Bangar.  The worst erosion so far occurred along the main road of Barangay Dadap where it is almost completely washed out together with agricultural lands and residential areas.  Landslide and erosion also occur on the mountain sides at Barangay Communal, the only barangay dominated by mountains.  Croplands and barangay roads were affected by landslide.

When typhoon comes with heavy downpour of rain, waterways swell and overflow.  With the lowering of the flood level, along with it carries especially the soil on the riverbanks triggering the soil to erode.  The abrupt impact of flash floods to the residents adjacent to these waterways caught them off guarded and cause loss of properties, livestock and agriculture.

  • Ground Shaking

Ground shaking from low to moderate intensities is experienced during earthquake events due to the Fault Line that is situated in Digdig, Nueva Ecija and Madiangat, Quezon, Nueva Vizcaya.

  • Liquefaction

The municipality is low susceptible to liquefaction hazard.  But we have to consider this hazard most especially on development or construction in which the conditions will be taken into account. 

  • Climate Impact Chain Analysis

The Climate and Disaster Risk Assessment (CDRA) is a process of studying risks and vulnerabilities of exposed elements particularly on Population (Social), Urban Area (Economic), Natural Resources (Environment), Critical Point Facilities and Lifeline Infrastructures (Infrastructure). It seeks to establish risk and vulnerable areas by analyzing the hazard, exposure, vulnerability/sensitivity and adaptive capacities of various elements. It identifies priority decision areas that need to be addressed. 

The Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment focuses on the identification of vulnerable areas and sectors by analyzing exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to various climate stimuli.

Below is the Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Summary Matrix for Social, Economic, Environment and Infrastructure.

  1. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment

For the Social Sector which focuses on Population it can be observed that policy interventions are mainly establishment of a fully equipped Evacuation Centers, Relocation of displaced families and provision of Centralized Command Post.

For the Economic which focuses on Urban Use, policy interventions are strict implementation of RA 9003, mandatory retrofitting of structures and enact of special levy taxes to fund construction of creek protection structures.  

On environment which centers on Natural Resources like the rivers, policy interventions focus on introducing new ways and technologies on farming to address the impact of low production on farming areas near the rivers.

On infrastructure (Critical Point Facilities and Lifeline Infrastructures) policy interventions include mostly dredging of rivers, construction of new bridge and construction of flood structures.

For the Economic Sector it can be deduced that Interventions include enactment of tourism code and intensify promotion campaign through establishment of barangay tourism committee.

On the Environment Sector it can be observed that interventions are application of organic fertilizer and establishment of sloping agricultural land technology.

                The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB) thru its banner program Geohazard Mapping and Assessment Program (GMAP) has conducted assessment within the municipality and was able to identify areas that were susceptible to hazards like flooding and landslide.

  1. Flood Assessment

In terms of flood susceptibility, seventeen (17) assessed barangays were found to be susceptible to flooding. These are located in low-lying areas and/or lie near a major drainage system (e. g., Magat River).

  1. Land and Soil Erosion

Soil erosion occurs along the riverbanks of the Magat River affecting Barangay Curifang, Bagahabag, Dadap and Bangar.  The worst erosion so far occurred along the main road of Barangay Dadap where it is almost completely washed out together with agricultural lands and residential areas.  Landslide and erosion also occur on the mountain sides at Barangay Communal, the only barangay dominated by mountains.  Croplands and barangay roads were affected by landslide.

When typhoon comes with heavy downpour of rain, waterways swell and overflow.  With the lowering of the flood level, along with it carries especially the soil on the riverbanks triggering the soil to erode.  The abrupt impact of flash floods to the residents adjacent to these waterways caught them off guarded and cause loss of properties, livestock and agriculture.

In terms of landslide susceptibility, nine (9) barangays assessed in Solano include areas that are located on and or near slopes and have the potentials for landslide occurrence. These barangays were also presented with a Landslide Threat Advisory. The Advisory informs the barangays of their susceptibility to landslides and includes the corresponding recommendations particular to the baran