SOCIAL COMPOSITION

  1. Population Size

As of latest census in 2020 of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), the municipality of Solano has a total population of 65,287 or 13.12% of the total provincial population, making it the second most populous among the fifteen (15) municipalities of the province of Nueva Vizcaya.  The average annual growth rate of 1.97%. Compared to 2015 survey on population which 59, 517, there is an increase of 5,770 persons.

 

Censuses of Population 2020, Nueva Vizcaya

Municipality Population
Alfonso Castañeda 8,539
Ambaguio 15,472
Aritao 42,197
Bagabag 37,985
Bambang 55,789
Bayombong 67,714 
Diadi 19,236
Dupax del Norte 33,295
Dupax del Sur 21,224
Kasibu 41,776
Kayapa 26,469
Quezon 24,055
Quezon 18,276
Solano 65,287
Villaverde 20,118
TOTAL 497,432

Source: NSO/PSA

  1. Population Density

The total population of 65,287 in the 2020 census is randomly distributed in 22 barangays which are clustered into urban area consisting of 6 barangays and rural area consisting of 16 barangays. The gross population density of the municipality is 6.34 persons per hectare or 634 persons per square kilometer while the net population density is 9.13 people per hectare or 913 per square kilometer.

The population density in the urban area is 24 people per hectare or 2,396 per square kilometer. The most densely populated urban barangay is Poblacion North with 65 people per hectare while in the rural barangay, Bagahabag has an average of 12 persons per hectare (gross population density). The lowest population density in urban barangay is Roxas with 17 persons per hectare and for rural barangay, Communal has 0.98 person per hectare (gross population density). (Table 7 and Figure 1 present the detailed information on population density of the municipality).

 

Table DE-5.  Population Density by Barangay, Year 2020
Barangay Population  AREA (Has.) Population Density
Urban
Osmeña 5,700               237.1956 24.03
Pob. North 976                 14.9574 65.25
Pob. South 819                 15.0646 54.37
Quezon 5,404               226.9240 23.81
Quirino 6,405               162.1960 39.49
Roxas 8,696               512.2046 16.98
Sub-Total 28,000            1,168.5422 23.96
Rural
Aggub 2,999               661.2947 4.54
Bagahabag 4,462               387.5320 11.51
Bangaan 1,178               245.6317 4.80
Bangar 1,130               466.0835 2.42
Bascaran 3,803               570.1071 6.67
Communal 2,481            2,533.8348 0.98
Concepcion 1,770               434.9726 4.07
Curifang 4,832               312.9076 15.44
Dadap 1,195               313.8922 3.81
Lactawan 1,446               251.6939 5.75
P.D. Galima 975               209.6962 4.65
San Juan 1,798               564.3868 3.19
San Luis 2,648               350.5345 7.55
Tucal 1,182               363.1722 3.25
Uddiawan 4,092            1,056.3767 3.87
Wacal 1,296               407.9016 3.18
Sub-Total 37,287            9,130.0181 4.08
Total 65,287         10,298.5603 6.34
Source: Philippine Statistics Office/Mun. Planning & Development Office

 

  1. Population Distribution
  • Urban and Rural Household Population

There is currently no available breakdown of average household size for 2020. Thus, the 2015 PSA statistics on the population size will be utilized. Moreover, the household size and number of households will be based on the CBMS data of the municipality. Majority of the population of the municipality is mainly found in the rural barangays with a total of 32,722 household population unevenly distributed to the 16 barangays. This represents 54.98 percent of the total population of the municipality. The 26,795-population dwell in the 6 urban barangays and this represents 45.02 percent of the total population.

The total number of households for the same year is 16,514 with an average household size of 3.58 percent or an average of 4 people per household, based on the PSA 2015 data. Comparing the household size from the urban to rural, the average household size in the urban barangays is 4.59 which is closely the same as with the rural barangays at 4.34.

Among the 22 barangays of the municipality, Barangay Bangar (a rural barangay) has the biggest household size of 6.24 followed by an urban barangay, Barangay Quirino that has a household size of 5.64. This further translates to mean that in a single household in the municipality, there are around 4 to 7 people in it. Table 9 and Figure 2 present the detailed information on population distribution of the municipality.

 

Table DE-3.  Household Population by Urban and Rural Barangay and Average Household Size, Year 2020

Barangay Population Number of Household Average Household Size
Urban
Osmeña 5,700  1,592
Pob. North 976 273
Pob. South 819 229
Quezon 5,404                 1,509
Quirino 6,405 1,789
Roxas 8,696 2,429
Sub-total 28,000 7,821
Rural  
Aggub 2,999 838
Bagahabag 4,462 1,246
Bangaan 1,178 329
Bangar 1,130 316
Bascaran 3,803 1,062
Communal 2,481 693
Concepcion 1,770 494
Curifang 4,832 1,350
Dadap 1,195 334
Lactawan 1,446 404
P.D. Galima 975 272
San Juan 1,798 502
San Luis 2,648 740
Tucal 1,182 330
Uddiawan 4,092 1,143
Wacal 1,296 362
Sub-total 37,287 10,415
TOTAL 65,287 18,237

Source: MPDO – Community Based Monitoring System 2015-2016

 

 

  • Population by Age Group and Gender

In the 2010 census of population, municipality of Solano recorded a total number of 56,134 and of this figure, 28,006 or 49.81 percent are male, while 28,047 or 49.96 percent are female.  In the 2015 the total population is 59,517 of which is 29,737 or 49.96 percent are male and 29,780 are female or 54.04 percent are female.

Based on the 2015 Census on Population, the age group of 5-9 years old constitutes the greatest number in the total population with a total number of 6,148 both male and female or 10.32 percent. Similar to 2010 census, the age group 5-9 years old has a population of 5,790 representing 10.33 percent of the year’s total population. The least number is the age group 80 years old and over both male and female.  Based from the said surveys, females dominated males with a sex ratio of 99.85 males for every 100 females but in the age group of 0-44, there were more males than females and gradually decreases its population starting 45 years old and over.

Comparing these two surveys 2010 and 2015, females dominated males with a sex ratio of 99.85 males for every 100 females but in the age group of 0-44, there were more males than females and gradually decreases its population starting 45 years old and over.

 

  • Age Dependency Ratio and Labor Force
    • Dependency Ratio

The working population age group 15-64 years old is 38,744, 65.10 percent of the total population while the young dependent (age group 0-14) and old dependent population (age 65 years old and above) is 22,506.

The young dependent population of the municipality includes the age group 0-14 years old which consists 17,820 or 29.94 percent of the total population. The vulnerable population or those who are 65 years old and above consists 4,686 or 7.87 percent of the total population.

With these on hand, the dependency ratio of the municipality is 58.09 which means in every 100 persons in the working age group (15-64), they have to support about 58 dependents, 46 of which are young dependents and about 12 old dependents.

If disaggregated as to sex, there are more females than males in the dependent population which accounted for 9,858 representing 16.56 percent of the total population.

 

  • Labor Force

Labor force or the economically active population refers to population 15 years old and over who are either employed or unemployed.  Employed persons refer to those who work for pay in any government or private enterprises.  Unemployed persons include all those who are jobseekers to work in part time or full-time basis.  Students, housewives, retirees, young and old dependents are not included in the labor force.

Of the total population of 59,517 in 2015, there were 41,698 people in the age group 15 years old and over who are in the labor force.  This is 70.06 percent of the total population of the municipality.

Based on the data derived from the CBMS Survey 2015, the employment rate in the municipality is 94% and unemployment rate is 6%.

 

Table No. DE-12.  Labor Force Population by Sex and Employment Status Year, 2015

SEX MUNICIPAL
Population 15years & over Employed % Unemployed %
Female 5,628 5,161 92 467 8
Male 12,463 11,839 95 624 5
Both Sexes 18,091 17,000 94 1,091 6
Source: CBMS 2015

 

  • Overseas Workers

Based on the data derived from the CBMS survey 2015, the number of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) from the municipality is 1,887.  From the total number of 2,146, there are 259 non-working individuals.  Female OFW is greater in number which is 1,206 in number representing 63.91 percent of the total number of OFW.  On the other hand, 681 or 36.09 percent are males.

 

Table DE-13. Overseas Workers, Year 2015-2016

Overseas Workers Number Total Male % Total Female %
Overseas Filipino Workers 1,887 681 36.09 1,206 63.91
Non-Working Individuals 259 88 33.98 171 66.02
TOTAL 2,146 769 35.83 1,377 64.17
Source: CBMS 2015

 

  1. School Going Age Population

The school going-age population age group 3-22 numbered to 20,280 both male and female representing 34.07 percent of the total population. The female outnumbered the male with a ratio of 95.52 or 96 males for every 100 females who are age-appropriate to go to school.

Table DE-1. Population Composition by School-Age, Working-Age, Dependent Age Group and Sex, Year 2015
Age Group Both Sexes Female Sex Ratio
No. % No. %
School going population 20,280 9,908 49% 10,372 51% 0.96
Pre-school (3-6) 4,483 1,106 25% 3,377 75% 0.33
Elementary (7-12) 5,235 3,456 66% 1,779 34% 1.94
Secondary/Junior HS) (13-16) 4,358 2,220 51% 2,138 49% 1.04
 Senior High School (17-18) 2,154 1,090 51% 1,064 49% 1.02
Tertiary (19-22) 4,050 2,036 50% 2,014 50% 1.01
Working age (15-64) 36,489 18,300 50% 18,189 50% 1.01
Labor Force (15 and over) 39,270 19,424 49% 19,846 51% 0.98
Dependent population 19,564 9,706 50% 9,858 50% 0.98
Young (0-14) 16,783 8,582 51% 8,201 49% 1.05
Old (65-over) 2,781 1,124 40% 1,657 60% 0.68

Source: Computed based on the latest PSA data on household population by age group

 

  1. Urbanization Level

Urbanization defined as growth in the proportion of population living in urban areas which takes place when there is development. Therefore, where there are economic activities or opportunities in an area, in-migration occurs resulting in increasing population.

Gleaning from the previous census from the past 20 years, it shows that population grow faster in the urban areas than in the rural areas. From 1990 to 2007, it shows that urban population grew rapidly with an average yearly growth rate of 2.95 percent in 1995, 2.31 percent in 2000 and 5.57 percent in 2007. This shows that the influx of people in the urban area resulted to the opening of various commercial activities and opportunities. But then in 2010 and 2015, the average yearly growth rate decreased with 0.90 percent and 0.07 percent. This might be the result of out-migration due to education, employment and congestion affected by construction of commercial buildings in residential areas. And in 2020, the urban population growth rate increased with 0.88 percent.

Based on the same censuses’ year in 1995 and 2000, tempo of urbanization is at 2.67% and 0.14%, respectively. It rose to 7.78% in 2007 and then decreased to -1.63% in 2010. It further presented a fluctuating tempo with -2.35% in 2015 and -1.77% in 2020. On the other hand, the increasing level of urbanization in the municipality from 1990 to 2007 censuses may be attributed to in-migration due to increasing number of commercial activities and employment that attracts people to reside in the area for economic reason especially because Solano is now considered as the center for highly specialized health services, primary commercial and financial center and primary urban settlement in Nueva Vizcaya.

Table DE-4. Urbanization Level for the Past 20 Years

Year Municipal Population Averaged Yearly Population Growth Rate (%) Averaged 5-Year Tempo of Urbanization (%) Level of Urbanization (%)
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Municipal Municipal Provincial
1990 14,598 29,648 44,246 33.0 45.5
1995 16,879 30,066 46,945 3.13 0.28 0.36 36.0 44.8
2000 18,923 33,468 52,391 2.42 2.26 0.36 36.1 44.0
2007 27,634 28,610 56,244 6.58 (-2.07) 0.49 49.1 45.2
2010 26,895 29,239 56,134 (-0.89) 0.73 0.48 47.9 47.0
2015 26,795 32,722 59,517 (-0.07) 2.38 0.45 45.0
2020 28,000 37,287 65,287 0.88 2.65 -1.77 42.9 5.63
Source: National Statistics Office

 

  1. Historical Growth of Population

Although Solano is already more than fifteen decades, the only recorded earliest census count is in 1903. Based on the censuses conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), it is observed that in the first census in 1903, a total of 5,624 people was recorded which gradually increased in 1918 to 7,563 indicating an average annual growth rate of 1.99 percent within a period of 15 years. Twenty-one (21) years after the last census in 1918, the population increased to 17,878 in 1939 with an average annual growth rate of 4.18 or an increase of 10,315 in the population. From 1948 to 1970, the population steadily increased but in 1975 the population suddenly inflated at an average annual growth rate of 4.09.

The municipality, across the years, had a growth rate averaging at 2.06 except in 2010 with population growth rate decreasing to -110 or -0.07 annual population growth rate (APGR). The decrease might be an error because as we noticed, the historical growth of the municipality or the APGR is constant. In the latest 2015 census, the population again increased with an average annual growth rate of 1.18. Population continued to increase as evident in the APGR in 2020 which is 1.97%. Table DE-6 below shows the information on the historical growth of the municipality of Solano.

 

Table DE-6.  Historical Growth of Population
Year Municipal Annual Growth Rate (%)
Population Increase/
Decrease
Municipal Provincial Regional National
1903 5,624    
1918 7,563 1,939 1.99 0.09
1939 17,878 10,315 4.18 0.07
1948 19,840 1,962 1.16 0.14
1960 22,523 2,683 1.06 0.12
1970 27,032 4,509 1.84 0.13
1975 33,036 6,004 4.09 0.23
1980 36,710 3,674 2.13 0.23
1990 44,246 7,536 1.88 0.13
1995 46,945 2,699 1.19 0.13 0.23 0.22
2000 52,391 5,446 2.22 0.12 0.22 0.23
2007 56,244 3,853 1.02 0.12 0.22 0.23
2010 56,134 -110 -0.07 1.39  1.39 1.70
2015 59,517 3,383 1.18 1.36  1.27 1.60 
2020 65,287 0.0969 1.97 2.02 1.39 1.30

Source: NSO/Philippine Statistics Authority

 

  1. Other Population Characters
    • Religion

Based on the primary survey conducted by the Municipal Planning and Development Office, the religious affiliation of the people is mostly dominated by the Roman Catholic, which constitute around 74.37 percent of the population.  This again has a historical basis since the founding fathers of the town in the 18th century are the Dominican priests, which until now influences religion and is being felt in physical structure such as the oldest school in the municipality run by a Catholic organization.

There are religious affiliations within the municipality belong to various religions such as Iglesia Ni Cristo, United Methodist and other evangelical churches to name a few. As enshrined in the constitution, the municipal government recognizes and respects the religious beliefs of the people and this is evident in the proliferation of various chapels and churches in most of its barangays.  These establishments can be used for evacuation center for displaced families during calamities instead of using schools.

 

  • Mother Tongue or Ethnicity

The early years in the history of Solano revealed that there was an influx of Ilocanos together with other ethnic groups who were considered then as one of the early settlers of the town.  Until now, its dominance is being felt as 80.71 percent of the total population in 2015 speaks the dialect.  Today, only 8,110 or 13.62 percent of the total population speaks Tagalog.

 

Table D-9. Population by Mother Tongue, Year 2015
Mother Tongue  Household Number  % of Total Households
Ilokano 48,038 80.71
Tagalog 8,110 13.63
Ayangan/Ifugao 1,656 2.78
Gaddang 562 0.94
Bisaya 254 0.43
Maranao 169 0.28
Pangasinan 166 0.28
Bicol 142 0.24
Kapampangan 78 0.13
Ibanag 58 0.10
Ilongot/Ilonggo 46 0.08
Isinai 41 0.07
Kalinga 12 0.02
Waray 33 0.06
Chinese 19 0.03
Others 99 0.17
Foreign Language 36 0.06
TOTAL 59,517 100.00
Source: CBMS Survey 2015-2016

 

  • Literacy Rate

The literacy rate of the municipality in 2015 is 97.96. Literacy rate refers to the percentage of the population who are able to read and write. Based on the result of the CBMS Survey, there are 38,978 males and females who are able to read and write and only 811 are considered not literate.   Population 10 years old and over were the participants of the said survey. Although the population distribution by sex in 2010 and 2015 (refer to Table DE-2) suggests that there are slightly more females than males in the populace, literate males dominate the number of literate females.  The proportion of literate was 98.02% for males and 97.90% for females.

The relatively higher literacy rate in the municipality could be attributed to the growing awareness of the populace in the importance of education and the accessibility of educational facilities.

 

Table DE-8. Literacy Rate of Population 10 years Old and Over, by Sex, Year 2015
Indicator Male Female Both sexes
No. % No. % No. %
Population 10 years old over 19,939 19,850 39,789
Literate 19,544 98.02 19,434 97.90 38,978 97.96
Literacy Rate (%) 98.02 97.90 97.96
Illiterate 395 1.98 416 2.10 811 2.04
Source: MPDO-CBMS 2015

 

  • Migration

Closely related to the context of overseas work is migration. While OFWs are accounted as residents who are currently living abroad due to employment, migration on the other hand socially refer to people who migrated in the area. Aside from the additional market of skilled labor and other economic activities that migrating individuals bring in the municipality, this also affects population rate which also the directly influences the demands for more resources. It is reported that in 2015, there are 813 people who migrated in the municipality three (3) years ago.

 

  • Fertility and Mortality

Fertility refers to the live births that occur within a population. Fertility varies depending on factors for instance the environment, social indicators such as educational or occupational status and even preferences of the mother.  Fertility represents addition to the population.

 Crude Birth Rate (CBR) refers to the total live births per 1,000 mid-year population.  It is the simplest and most commonly used index of fertility. The computed average Crude Birth Rate (CBR) from 2016 to 2020 is 14.832%. This means that there were about 14 to 15 live births registered per 1,000 populations per year from the said period.

 Mortality refers to the occurrence of deaths in a population and represents attrition or reduction in the number of the population. There are other health indicators for mortality that are further discussed in the Social Sector of this plan.

 Crude Death Rate (CDR) is a rough measure of mortality. It refers to the number of deaths per one thousand. The CDR of the municipality was computed at an average of 4.538 from 2016 to 2020. This means that there were 4 to 5 deaths for every 1,000 populations during the said period.

While Solanoans are generally healthy, we still ought to know that there are many interacting factors needed to be gathered in order to have a more comprehensive analyses on the factors affecting the health sector and come up with measures to address these health concerns.

 

Table DE-7. Crude Birth Rate and Crude Death Rate for the Past Three Years, Year 2016-2018

Period Crude Birth Rate % increase/Decrease from previous year Crude Death Rate % increase/decrease from previous year
2015 12.23 6.6
2016 16.83 37.61 5.82 -11.82
2017 19.36 15.03 4.79 -17.70
2018 20.38 5.27 4.92 2.71
2019 20.38 0.24 4.79 0.18
2020 5.72 -0.72 4.53 -0.05

Source: Municipal Health Office